Peer-Reviewed Scientific Articles​

Glycation, ageing and carnosine: Are carnivorous diets beneficial?


Journal: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

 Publication Date: 10/2005

 Summary: Non-enzymic protein glycosylation (glycation) plays important roles in ageing and in diabetes and its secondary complications. Dietary constituents may play important roles in accelerating or suppressing glycation. It is suggested that carnivorous diets contain a potential anti-glycating agent, carnosine (β-alanyl-histidine), whilst vegetarians may lack intake of the dipeptide. The possible beneficial effects of carnosine and related structures on protein carbonyl stress, AGE formation, secondary diabetic complications and age-related neuropathology are discussed.

Key Takeaways

Carnosine is a nutrient only found in animal meat. This nutrient may play a role in keeping proteins and enzymes in your body functioning properly by preventing sugar molecules from sticking to them, which impairs their function.

Would Carnosine or a Carnivorous Diet Help Suppress Aging and Associated Pathologies?


Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Publication Date: 05/2006

Summary: Carnosine has the potential to suppress many of the biochemical changes (e.g., protein oxidation, glycation, AGE formation, and cross‐linking) that accompany aging and associated pathologies. Glycation, generation of advanced glycosylation end‐products (AGEs), and formation of protein carbonyl groups play important roles in aging, diabetes, its secondary complications, and neurodegenerative conditions. It is suggested that carnivorous diets could be beneficial because of their carnosine content, as the dipeptide has been shown to suppress some diabetic complications in mice. It is also suggested that carnosine’s therapeutic potential should be explored with respect to neurodegeneration.

Key Takeaways

Carnosine again showing suppression of complications associated with aging, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Efficacy of l-carnitine supplementation for management of blood lipids: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials


Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

Publication Date: 07/2019

Summary: l-carnitine supplementation at doses above 2 g/d has favorable effects on patients’ lipid profiles, but is modulated on participant health and route of administration.

Key Takeaways

Supplementing with l-carnitine, a nutrient only found in meat, can have positive effects of blood lipids.

L-carnitine ameliorated weight loss in fasting therapy: A propensity score-matched study


Journal: Complementary Therapies in Medicine

Publication Date: 06/2019

Summary: Weight and BMI decreased in both groups, but significantly more in l-carnitine group, while diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides decreased significantly more in non-l-carnitine group compared between groups, blood glucose did not differ significantly between groups. l-carnitine can boost the positive effects of fasting therapy on weight loss and maintain the stability of blood pressure.

Key Takeaways

L-carnitine supplementation can improve weight loss and have positive effects on blood pressure and triglycerides.

The effect of l-carnitine supplementation on lipid profile and glycaemic control in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials


Journal: Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 02/2019

Summary: This meta-analysis showed that l-carnitine supplementation could improve lipid profile levels, particularly in doses more than 1500 mg/day. More RCTs with large sample sizes, focusing on gut microbiome profiles and dietary patterns are needed to better understand the effect of l-carnitine on patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

Key Takeaways

L-carnitine is a nutrient only found in meat that when given as a supplement has positive effects on blood lipids.

Carnosine and advanced glycation end products: a systematic review


Journal: Amino Acids

Publication Date: 09/2018

Summary: Carnosine has anti-glycating properties, and may hinder the formation of protein carbonyls and the cross-links induced by reduced sugars; however, there were few human studies.

Key Takeaways

Excessive dietary intake of carbohydrates can lead to the glycation of proteins. Glycation occurs when a carbohydrate attaches itself to a protein and impairs its ability to function normally. Carnosine is a nutrient only found in meat products that may have the ability to prevent glycation from occuring.

The Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products by Carnosine and Other Natural Dipeptides to Reduce Diabetic and Age‐Related Complications


Journal: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

Publication Date: 07/2018

Summary: Carnosine has been shown to prevent AGE formations through reduction of blood glucose, prevention of early glycation, and even reversing previously formed AGEs.

Key Takeaways

Carnosine is a nutrient found only in meat that prevents sugars from binding to proteins and impairing the protein's function.

L-Carnitine supplementation reduces the general fatigue of cancer patients during chemotherapy


Journal: Molecular and Clinical Oncology

Publication Date: 03/2018

Summary: LC-Carnitine supplementation improved general fatigue in all the examined cancer patients during chemotherapy. This treatment may improve the tolerability of chemotherapy in cancer patients by reducing general fatigue and improving the nutritional status.

Key Takeaways

Supplementing with carnitine, a nutrient found exclusively in meat, helped cancer patients reduce levels of fatigue and improve tolerance to chemotherapy.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation and the Treatment of Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Journal: Psychosomatic Medicine

Publication Date: 02/2018

Summary: Acetyl l-carnitine supplementation significantly decreases depressive symptoms compared with placebo/no intervention, while offering a comparable effect with that of established antidepressant agents with fewer adverse effects.

Key Takeaways

Supplemental carnitine, a nutrient only found in meat, improves depression with similar effectiveness as antidepressant drugs but without side effects.

l-Carnitine and heart disease


Journal: Life Science

Publication Date: 02/2018

Summary: Exogenous carnitine administration through dietary and intravenous routes serves as a suitable protective strategy against ventricular dysfunction, ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiac arrhythmia and toxic myocardial injury that prominently mark CVD. Additionally, carnitine reduces hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, obesity, etc. that enhance cardiovascular pathology. These favorable effects of l-carnitine have been evident in infants, juvenile, young, adult and aged patients of sudden and chronic heart failure as well.

Key Takeaways

Carnitine is a nutrient found exclusively in meat that has many positive effects on heart disease. When supplemented, it can prevent abnormal heart contractions and rhythms, prevent injury from rapid blood flow increase after blocked vessels are cleared, improve blood pressure, improve blood lipids, and improve diabetes related blood sugar abnormalities.

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