Research Articles

Peer-reviewed scientific articles

Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial

URL: https://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12986-020-00481-9
Journal: Nutrition & Metabolism
Publication Date: 08/2020
Summary: Weight loss resulting from consumption of a diet lower in CHO and higher in fat may be beneficial for older adults with obesity by depleting adipose tissue depots most strongly implicated in poor metabolic and functional outcomes and by improving insulin sensitivity and the lipid profile.

Key Takeaways

Older adults were able to deplete excess fat tissue and improve insulin sensitivity by utilizing a ketogenic diet.

Ketogenic Diet and Health

URL: https://www.lidsen.com/journals/icm/icm-06-02-015
Journal: OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine
Publication Date: 04/2021
Summary: Carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) were introduced in the mid-19th century as a weight loss method with a resurgence of its use in epilepsy treatment in the 1920’s. Research conducted over the last several years provides evidence that KD’s can confer beneficial effects for several chronic metabolic diseases, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and polycystic ovary syndrome. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests KD’s may also have therapeutic benefits for some cancers and for neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s’ disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Finally, as the physiological mechanisms by which a KD operates become increasingly understood, we speculate that several other health conditions (e.g., autism, cystic fibrosis, COVID-19) that may improve from consuming a KD. The potential to reduce or eliminate long-term pharmaceutical treatments and their potential adverse effects by modifying diet patterns justifies additional research, particularly rigorously conducted clinical trials with long-term follow-up. This brief review describes a selection of the recent studies of KD as applied to chronic metabolic diseases, and provides an estimate of the quality of the evidence for KD’s effects. We also describe and appraise some of the risks and misconceptions attributed to KD which may limit the widespread use of KD’s among physicians and healthcare providers.

Key Takeaways

Since the introduction of the ketogenic diet in the 1920's as a treatment for epilepsy, the diet has proven to show many metabolic benefits that prove useful in the treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, PCOS, obesity, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, and brain/spinal injuries. This dietary pattern is being studied more and more, and the fact that this dietary treatment can reduce or prevent the use of pharmaceutical medication warrants more rigorous studies. In addition, this dietary pattern may prove useful for other health conditions as well from autism to COVID-19. The ketogenic diet may be pivotal in the future of medicine.

Favorable Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Physical Function, Perceived Energy, and Food Cravings in Women with Ovarian or Endometrial Cancer:
A Randomized, Controlled Trial

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30200193/
Journal: Nutrients
Publication Date: 08/2018
Summary: Ketogenic diets (KDs) are gaining attention as a potential adjuvant therapy for cancer, but data are limited for KDs’ effects on quality of life. We hypothesized that the KD would (1) improve mental and physical function, including energy levels, (2) reduce hunger, and (3) diminish sweet and starchy food cravings in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer. Participants were randomized to a KD (70:25:5 energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrate) or the American Cancer Society diet (ACS: high-fiber, lower-fat). Questionnaires were administered at baseline and after 12 weeks on the assigned diet to assess changes in mental and physical health, perceived energy, appetite, and food cravings. We assessed both between-group differences and within-group changes using ANCOVA and paired t-tests, respectively. After 12 weeks, there was a significant between-group difference in adjusted physical function scores (p < 0.05), and KD participants not receiving chemotherapy reported a significant within-group reduction in fatigue (p < 0.05). There were no significant between-group differences in mental function, hunger, or appetite. There was a significant between-group difference in adjusted cravings for starchy foods and fast food fats at 12 weeks (p < 0.05 for both), with the KD group demonstrating less frequent cravings than the ACS. In conclusion, in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer, a KD does not negatively affect quality of life and in fact may improve physical function, increase energy, and diminish specific food cravings. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03171506.

Key Takeaways

This study demonstrated that women with ovarian and endometrial cancer experience a reduction in starchy food cravings, improved physical function, and a reduction in fatigue when eating a ketogenic diet compared to the high fiber low fat diet recommended by the American Cancer Society.

Ketogenic Diet for Cancer: Critical Assessment and Research Recommendations

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34684564/
Journal: Nutrients
Publication Date: 10/2021
Summary: Despite remarkable improvements in screening, diagnosis, and targeted therapies, cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the United States. It is increasingly clear that diet and lifestyle practices play a substantial role in cancer development and progression. As such, various dietary compositions have been proposed for reducing cancer risk and as potential adjuvant therapies. In this article, we critically assess the preclinical and human trials on the effects of the ketogenic diet (KD, i.e., high-fat, moderate-to-low protein, and very-low carbohydrate content) for cancer-related outcomes. The mechanisms underlying the hypothesized effects of KD, most notably the Warburg Effect, suggest that restricting carbohydrate content may impede cancer development and progression via several pathways (e.g., tumor metabolism, gene expression). Overall, although preclinical studies suggest that KD has antitumor effects, prolongs survival, and prevents cancer development, human clinical trials are equivocal. Because of the lack of high-quality clinical trials, the effects of KD on cancer and as an adjunctive therapy are essentially unknown. We propose a set of research recommendations for clinical studies examining the effects of KD on cancer development and progression.

Key Takeaways

The Warburg Effect suggests that cancers feed primarily off of glucose. Preclinical studies suggest that the ketogenic diet has anti-cancer properties and prolongs the survival of cancer patients. Unfortunately, clinical trials do not show a definitive positive effect for the ketogenic diet on cancer, but there are few high quality studies. Thus, we must develop more high quality research to demonstrate how the ketogenic diet affects cancer.

A Ketogenic Diet Is Acceptable in Women with Ovarian and Endometrial Cancer and Has No Adverse Effects on Blood Lipids: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31352797/

Journal: Nutrition and Cancer

Publication Date: 07/2019

Summary: Ketogenic diets (KDs) are emerging as effective therapies for several chronic diseases, including cancer. However, concerns regarding safety and adherence may prevent clinicians from prescribing KDs. We hypothesized that a KD does not negatively affect blood lipid profile compared to a lower-fat diet in ovarian and endometrial cancer patients, and that KD subjects would demonstrate acceptable adherence. Subjects were randomized to either a KD (70% fat, 25% protein, 5% carbohydrate), or the American Cancer Society diet (ACS; high-fiber and lower-fat). Blood lipids and ketones were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of the assigned intervention. Adherence measures included urinary ketones in the KD and 4 days’ diet records. Diet records were also examined to identify general patterns of consumption. Differences between the diets on blood lipids and dietary intake were assessed with Analysis of covariance and independent t-tests. Correlation analyses were used to estimate associations between dietary intake and serum analytes. At 12 weeks, there were no significant differences between diet groups in blood lipids, after adjusting for baseline values and weight loss. Adherence among KD subjects ranged from 57% to 80%. These findings suggest that KDs may be a safe and achievable component of treatment for some cancer patients.

Key Takeaways

Ketogenic diets do not have negative effects on blood lipids, and adherence in a group of cancer patients ranged from 57-80%. This combined with the ketogenic diets likely benefit in cancer patients makes it an achievable addition to cancer therapy.

A Ketogenic Diet Reduces Central Obesity and Serum Insulin in Women with Ovarian or Endometrial Cancer

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30137481/
Journal: The Journal of Nutrition
Publication Date: 08/2018
Summary: In women with ovarian or endometrial cancer, a ketogenic diet (KD) results in selective loss of fat mass and retention of lean mass. Visceral fat mass and fasting serum insulin also are reduced by the KD, perhaps owing to enhanced insulin sensitivity. Elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate may reflect a metabolic environment inhospitable to cancer proliferation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03171506.

Key Takeaways

Women with ovarian cancer were able to utilize the ketogenic diet to lose fat without losing muscle mass. They were also able to reduce the fat surrounding their organs and improve metabolic markers such as insulin, insulin sensitivity, IGF-1. Additionally they had increased levels of ketone bodies, which may play a role in fighting cancer.

Consuming an All-Meat Ketogenic Diet for the Long-Term Management of Candida Vulvovaginitis and Vaginal Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A 47-Month Follow-Up Case Report

URL: https://www.cureus.com/articles/119195-consuming-an-all-meat-ketogenic-diet-for-the-long-term-management-of-candida-vulvovaginitis-and-vaginal-hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-47-month-follow-up-case-report
Journal: Cureus
Publication Date: 10/2022
Summary: This case report describes long-term therapeutic management in a 33-year-old diagnosed with Candida vulvovaginitis and vulvar hidradenitis suppurativa 47 months previously. Candida spp. yeasts are part of many women’s normal vaginal microflora, and the development of vulvovaginal candidiasis is typically a result of a disturbance in the patient’s microbial ecosystem, which manifests itself by intense pruritus, erythema, swelling, and thick white vaginal discharge. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic auto-inflammatory skin condition that causes painful weeping lesions in areas of dense apocrine glands. Although certain mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (e.g., risk factors include smoking, obesity, and family history) have been investigated, a definitive explanation remains elusive.

Nutritional intervention in the form of an all-meat ketogenic diet may be considered therapy in the management of both diseases, as successfully seen in this case report. The patient refused standard of care with oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis and surgical removal for Hidradenitis suppurativa, and instead consumed a zero-carbohydrate all-meat ketogenic diet mostly of beef with strict adherence to the diet for 43 days in which symptoms ceased.

Key Takeaways

Hidradenitis Suppurativa is a skin infection that occurs in areas of the body with skin folds/creases such as the armpit, groin, vulva, etc where the skin becomes red, painful, and drains pus. This patient had hidradenitis suppurativa and a yeast infection in her vulva and vaginal region. She refused antibiotics, and instead did a carnivore diet. After 43 days of the carnivore diet, her symptoms were gone and the infections cleared.

The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate mitigates ILC2-driven airway inflammation by regulating mast cell function

URL: https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(22)01278-5?
Journal: Cell Reports
Publication Date: 09/2022
Summary: Ketone bodies are increasingly understood to have regulatory effects on immune cell function, with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) exerting a predominantly anti-inflammatory response. Dietary strategies to increase endogenous ketone body availability such as the ketogenic diet (KD) have recently been shown to alleviate inflammation of the respiratory tract. However, the role of BHB has not been addressed. Here, we observe that BHB suppresses group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2)-mediated airway inflammation. Central to this are mast cells, which support ILC2 proliferation through interleukin-2 (IL-2). Suppression of the mast cell/IL-2 axis by BHB attenuates ILC2 proliferation and the ensuing type 2 cytokine response and immunopathology. Mechanistically, BHB directly inhibits mast cell function in part through GPR109A activation. Similar effects are achieved with either the KD or 1,3-butanediol. Our data reveal the protective role of BHB in ILC2-driven airway inflammation, which underscores the potential therapeutic value of ketone body supplementation for the management of asthma.

Key Takeaways

Ketone bodies produced during a ketogenic diet have an anti-inflammatory effect. These ketones have even been shown to decrease inflammation in the lungs by suppressing an inflammatory cell type called mast cells. Therefore, ketogenic diets can be used as a supplemental treatment for asthma.

Ketogenic diet for weight loss

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371871/
Journal: Canadian Family Physician
Publication Date: 12/2018
Summary: Ketogenic diets can help patients lose about 2 kg more than low-fat diets do at 1 year, but higher-quality studies show no difference. Weight loss peaks at about 5 months but is often not sustained. Individual weight change can vary from losing 30 kg to gaining 10 kg with any diet.

Vitamin D as a promising anticancer agent

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081446/
Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Publication Date: 04/2011
Summary: Presence of vitamin D receptors in noncalcemic tissues and subsequent identification of its involvement in growth factor(s)-mediated cellular function suggested its probable beneficial role in genesis, progression and survival of cancerous growths. Data collected from both in vitro and in vivo studies are highly optimistic regarding its potential in prevention and regression of colorectal, prostate and breast cancers. The vitamin has been found to interfere with the transduction pathways of various growth factor(s)-activated receptors (receptor tyrosine kinases) thereby modulating transcription and alteration of genomic functions resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis and facilitation of cell differentiation and apoptosis. It also increases the level of an endogenous protein – cystatin D, which possesses antitumor and antimetastatic property, by facilitation of the expression of the gene coding for it. Though not as a primary anticancer agent, this vitamin may be used for the prevention of cancer and included as an adjuvant in combination chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer.

Key Takeaways

Vitamin D performs several anticancer functions. It can reduce cancer's ability to grow by inhibiting cell division/growth and preventing cancer's ability to increase its blood supply. It can even help to increase production of a protein called cystatin D which has anticancer properties as well.

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