Research Articles

Peer-reviewed scientific articles

Ketogenic diet for weight loss

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371871/
Journal: Canadian Family Physician
Publication Date: 12/2018
Summary: Ketogenic diets can help patients lose about 2 kg more than low-fat diets do at 1 year, but higher-quality studies show no difference. Weight loss peaks at about 5 months but is often not sustained. Individual weight change can vary from losing 30 kg to gaining 10 kg with any diet.

Vitamin D as a promising anticancer agent

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081446/
Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Publication Date: 04/2011
Summary: Presence of vitamin D receptors in noncalcemic tissues and subsequent identification of its involvement in growth factor(s)-mediated cellular function suggested its probable beneficial role in genesis, progression and survival of cancerous growths. Data collected from both in vitro and in vivo studies are highly optimistic regarding its potential in prevention and regression of colorectal, prostate and breast cancers. The vitamin has been found to interfere with the transduction pathways of various growth factor(s)-activated receptors (receptor tyrosine kinases) thereby modulating transcription and alteration of genomic functions resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation and angiogenesis and facilitation of cell differentiation and apoptosis. It also increases the level of an endogenous protein – cystatin D, which possesses antitumor and antimetastatic property, by facilitation of the expression of the gene coding for it. Though not as a primary anticancer agent, this vitamin may be used for the prevention of cancer and included as an adjuvant in combination chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer.

Ultra-Processed Food Availability and Noncommunicable Diseases: A Systematic Review

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34299832/
Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Publication Date: 07/2021
Summary: Ultra-processed food (UPF) can be harmful to the population’s health. To establish associations between UPF and health outcomes, food consumption can be assessed using availability data, such as purchase lists or household budget surveys. The aim of this systematic review was to search studies that related UPF availability with noncommunicable diseases or their risk factors. PRISMA guidelines were used. Searches were performed in PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus and Web of Science in February 2021. The search strategy included terms related to exposure (UPF) and outcomes (noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors). Studies that assessed only food consumption at an individual level and did not present health outcomes were excluded. Two reviewers conducted the selection process, and a third helped when disagreement occurred. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the studies’ quality; 998 records were analyzed. All 11 eligible studies were ecological and assessed overweight and obesity as a health outcome, only one showed no positive association with UPF availability. Two studies included the prevalence of diabetes as an outcome, however no significant association was found with UPF availability. Studies relating UPF availability and health outcomes are focused on overweight and obesity. It is necessary to further explore the relationship between other health outcomes and UPF availability using purchase or sales data.

Ultra-processed food and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34904160/
Journal: International Journal of Epidemiology
Publication Date: 08/2022
Summary: In total 2272 records were screened, of which 18 studies, including almost 1.1 million individuals, were included in this review and 72% showed a positive association between ultra-processed foods and the risk of diabetes. According to the studies included in the meta-analysis, compared with non-consumption, moderate intake of ultra-processed food increased the risk of diabetes by 12% [relative risk (RR): 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.17, I2 = 24%], whereas high intake increased risk by 31% (RR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.21-1.42, I2 = 60%).

Ketogenic diet and Neuroinflammation

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32987244/
Journal: Epilepsy Research
Publication Date: 09/2020
Summary: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an established treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy with a proven efficacy. The KD is being explored for Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES) and epileptic encephalopathies. There is growing evidence that KD works by targeting dysregulated adaptive and innate immunity that occurs in drug-resistant epilepsy and in refractory status epilepticus. Beyond epilepsy, there are yet additional potential uses in neurological disorders because KD appears to have the broad anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. The KD exerts anti-inflammatory action against a variety of experimental models of neurological disorders including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, pain, and spinal cord injury. Anti-inflammatory action of KD appears to be mediated by multiple mechanisms. Ketones bodies, caloric restriction, polyunsaturated fatty acids and gut microbiota modifications might be involved in the modulation of inflammation by the KD.

Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31635247/
Journal: Nutrients
Publication Date: 10/2019
Summary:  Currently available pharmacological treatment of epilepsy has limited effectiveness. In epileptic patients, pharmacological treatment with available anticonvulsants leads to seizure control in <70% of cases. Surgical intervention can lead to control in a selected subset of patients, but still leaves a significant number of patients with uncontrolled seizures. Therefore, in drug-resistant epilepsy, the ketogenic diet proves to be useful. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of what was published about the benefits of ketogenic diet treatment in patients with epilepsy. Clinical data on the benefits of ketogenic diet treatment in terms of clinical symptoms and adverse reactions in patients with epilepsy have been reviewed. Variables that could have influenced the interpretation of the data were also discussed (e.g., gut microbiota). The data in this review contributes to a better understanding of the potential benefits of a ketogenic diet in the treatment of epilepsy and informs scientists, clinicians, and patients-as well as their families and caregivers-about the possibilities of such treatment. Since 1990, the number of publications on attempts to treat drug-resistant epilepsy with a ketogenic diet has grown so rapidly that it has become a challenge to see the overall trajectory and major milestones achieved in this field. In this review, we hope to provide the latest data from randomized clinical trials, practice guidelines, and new research areas over the past 2 years.

Ketogenic Diet and Epilepsy: What We Know So Far

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30760973/
Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Publication Date: 01/2019
Summary: The Ketogenic Diet (KD) is a modality of treatment used since the 1920s as a treatment for intractable epilepsy. It has been proposed as a dietary treatment that would produce similar benefits to fasting, which is already recorded in the Hippocratic collection. The KD has a high fat content (90%) and low protein and carbohydrate. Evidence shows that KD and its variants are a good alternative for non-surgical pharmacoresistant patients with epilepsy of any age, taking into account that the type of diet should be designed individually and that less-restrictive and more-palatable diets are usually better options for adults and adolescents. This review discusses the KD, including the possible mechanisms of action, applicability, side effects, and evidence for its efficacy, and for the more-palatable diets such as the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) and the Low Glycemic Index Diet (LGID) in children and adults.

The Ketogenic Diet: Uses in Epilepsy and Other Neurologic Illnesses

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2898565/
Journal: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Publication Date: 11/2008
Summary: The ketogenic diet is well established as therapy for intractable epilepsy. It should be considered first-line therapy in glucose transporter type 1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. It should be considered early in the treatment of Dravet syndrome and myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome).

Initial studies indicate that the ketogenic diet appears effective in other metabolic conditions, including phosphofructokinase deficiency and glycogenosis type V (McArdle disease). It appears to function in these disorders by providing an alternative fuel source. A growing body of literature suggests the ketogenic diet may be beneficial in certain neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In these disorders, the ketogenic diet appears to be neuroprotective, promoting enhanced mitochondrial function and rescuing adenosine triphosphate production.

Dietary therapy is a promising intervention for cancer, given that it may target the relative inefficiency of tumors in using ketone bodies as an alternative fuel source. The ketogenic diet also may have a role in improving outcomes in trauma and hypoxic injuries.

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