Long-Term Effects of a Novel Continuous Remote Care Intervention Including Nutritional Ketosis for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-Year Non-randomized Clinical Trial

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URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6561315/

Journal: Frontiers in Endocrinology

Publication Date: 06/2019

Summary: Studies on long-term sustainability of low-carbohydrate approaches to treat diabetes are limited. We previously reported the effectiveness of a novel digitally-monitored continuous care intervention (CCI) including nutritional ketosis in improving weight, glycemic outcomes, lipid, and liver marker changes at 1 year. Here, we assess the effects of the CCI at 2 years. An open label, non-randomized, controlled study with 262 and 87 participants with T2D were enrolled in the CCI and usual care (UC) groups, respectively. Primary outcomes were retention, glycemic control, and weight changes at 2 years. Secondary outcomes included changes in body composition, liver, cardiovascular, kidney, thyroid and inflammatory markers, diabetes medication use and disease status. Reductions from baseline to 2 years in the CCI group resulting from intent-to-treat analyses included: HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and liver alanine transaminase, and HDL-C increased. Spine bone mineral density in the CCI group was unchanged. Use of any glycemic control medication (excluding metformin) among CCI participants declined (from 55.7 to 26.8%) including insulin (-62%) and sulfonylureas (-100%). The UC group had no changes in these parameters (except uric acid and anion gap) or diabetes medication use. There was also resolution of diabetes (reversal, 53.5%; remission, 17.6%) in the CCI group but not in UC. All the reported improvements had p < 0.00012. The CCI group sustained long-term beneficial effects on multiple clinical markers of diabetes and cardiometabolic health at 2 years while utilizing less medication. The intervention was also effective in the resolution of diabetes and visceral obesity with no adverse effect on bone health.

Key Takeaways

Low carbohydrate ketogenic diets were assessed in 262 adults with type 2 diabetes after 2 years of dieting. Participants saw reductions in blood sugar, insulin, blood pressure, weight, triglycerides, and liver enzymes. HDL was increased, and patients maintained spinal bone mineral density. Additionally, diabetic medication use was reduced in a majority of patients and sulfonylureas were eliminated in all patients. 53.5% saw a complete reversal of diabetes and 17.6 put their diabetes into remission.

Long Term Ketogenic Diets Can Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

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