Effects of a ketogenic diet in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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URL: https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12967-020-02277-0

Journal: Journal of Translational Medicine

Publication Date: 02/2020

Summary: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during reproductive age. It is characterized clinically by oligo-ovulation or anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and the presence of polycystic ovaries. It is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The onset of PCOS has been associated to several hereditary and environmental factors, but insulin resistance plays a key pathogenetic role. We sought to investigate the effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) on women of childbearing age with a diagnosis of PCOS. Fourteen overweight women with diagnosis of PCOS underwent to a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phyoextracts (KEMEPHY) for 12 week. Changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat body mass (FBM), lean body mass (LBM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TGs), total and free testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs), estradiol, progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and Ferriman Gallwey score were evaluated. After 12 weeks, anthropometric and body composition measurements revealed a significant reduction of body weight (− 9.43 kg), BMI (− 3.35), FBM (8.29 kg) and VAT. There was a significant, slightly decrease of LBM. A significant decrease in glucose and insulin blood levels were observed, together with a significant improvement of HOMA-IR. A significant decrease of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL were observed along with a rise in HDL lev- els. The LH/FSH ratio, LH total and free testosterone, and DHEAS blood levels were also significantly reduced. Estradiol, progesterone and SHBG increased. The Ferriman Gallwey Score was slightly, although not significantly, reduced. Our results suggest that a KD may be considered as a valuable non pharmacological treatment for PCOS. Longer treatment periods should be tested to verify the effect of a KD on the dermatological aspects of PCOS

Key Takeaways

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome occurs in women with a genetic predisposition that is triggered by obesity and insulin resistance. This results in a hormonal change resulting in excess male sex hormones, cysts in the ovaries, and increased hair growth on face, chest, and other areas. When a group of women with PCOS were placed on a mediterranean ketogenic diet, they saw a reduction in body fat, body weight, insulin resistance, and blood lipids. They also saw a significant normalization in hormone levels with decreases in male sex hormones and increases in female sex hormones.

Ketogenic Diets May Be A Useful Non-Pharmocologic Treatment For PCOS

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