Weight loss

Peer-Reviewed Scientific Articles​

Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial

URL: https://nutritionandmetabolism.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12986-020-00481-9
Journal: Nutrition & Metabolism
Publication Date: 08/2020
Summary: Weight loss resulting from consumption of a diet lower in CHO and higher in fat may be beneficial for older adults with obesity by depleting adipose tissue depots most strongly implicated in poor metabolic and functional outcomes and by improving insulin sensitivity and the lipid profile.

Key Takeaways

Older adults were able to deplete excess fat tissue and improve insulin sensitivity by utilizing a ketogenic diet.

It's Never Too Late to Start Keto

Ketogenic Diet and Health

URL: https://www.lidsen.com/journals/icm/icm-06-02-015
Journal: OBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine
Publication Date: 04/2021
Summary: Carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) were introduced in the mid-19th century as a weight loss method with a resurgence of its use in epilepsy treatment in the 1920’s. Research conducted over the last several years provides evidence that KD’s can confer beneficial effects for several chronic metabolic diseases, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and polycystic ovary syndrome. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests KD’s may also have therapeutic benefits for some cancers and for neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s’ disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Finally, as the physiological mechanisms by which a KD operates become increasingly understood, we speculate that several other health conditions (e.g., autism, cystic fibrosis, COVID-19) that may improve from consuming a KD. The potential to reduce or eliminate long-term pharmaceutical treatments and their potential adverse effects by modifying diet patterns justifies additional research, particularly rigorously conducted clinical trials with long-term follow-up. This brief review describes a selection of the recent studies of KD as applied to chronic metabolic diseases, and provides an estimate of the quality of the evidence for KD’s effects. We also describe and appraise some of the risks and misconceptions attributed to KD which may limit the widespread use of KD’s among physicians and healthcare providers.

Key Takeaways

Since the introduction of the ketogenic diet in the 1920's as a treatment for epilepsy, the diet has proven to show many metabolic benefits that prove useful in the treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, PCOS, obesity, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, and brain/spinal injuries. This dietary pattern is being studied more and more, and the fact that this dietary treatment can reduce or prevent the use of pharmaceutical medication warrants more rigorous studies. In addition, this dietary pattern may prove useful for other health conditions as well from autism to COVID-19. The ketogenic diet may be pivotal in the future of medicine.

Beyond Epilepsy: The Ketogenic Diet Has A Bright Future in Medicine

A Ketogenic Diet Reduces Central Obesity and Serum Insulin in Women with Ovarian or Endometrial Cancer

URL: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30137481/
Journal: The Journal of Nutrition
Publication Date: 08/2018
Summary: In women with ovarian or endometrial cancer, a ketogenic diet (KD) results in selective loss of fat mass and retention of lean mass. Visceral fat mass and fasting serum insulin also are reduced by the KD, perhaps owing to enhanced insulin sensitivity. Elevated serum β-hydroxybutyrate may reflect a metabolic environment inhospitable to cancer proliferation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03171506.

Key Takeaways

Women with ovarian cancer were able to utilize the ketogenic diet to lose fat without losing muscle mass. They were also able to reduce the fat surrounding their organs and improve metabolic markers such as insulin, insulin sensitivity, IGF-1. Additionally they had increased levels of ketone bodies, which may play a role in fighting cancer.

Cancer Patients Improve Body Composition With Keto

Ketogenic diet for weight loss

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371871/
Journal: Canadian Family Physician
Publication Date: 12/2018
Summary: Ketogenic diets can help patients lose about 2 kg more than low-fat diets do at 1 year, but higher-quality studies show no difference. Weight loss peaks at about 5 months but is often not sustained. Individual weight change can vary from losing 30 kg to gaining 10 kg with any diet.

Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11010-007-9448-z

Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Publication Date: 04/2007

Summary: Obesity is closely linked to the incidence of type II diabetes. It is found that effective management of body weight and changes to nutritional habits especially with regard to the carbohydrate content and glycemic index of the diet have beneficial effects in obese subjects with glucose intolerance. Previously we have shown that ketogenic diet is quite effective in reducing body weight. Furthermore, it favorably alters the cardiac risk factors even in hyperlipidemic obese subjects. In this study the effect of ketogenic diet in obese subjects with high blood glucose level is compared to those with normal blood glucose level for a period of 56 weeks. A total of 64 healthy obese subjects with body mass index (BMI) greater than 30, having high blood glucose level and those subjects with normal blood glucose level were selected in this study. The body weight, body mass index, blood glucose level, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and creatinine were determined before and at 8, 16, 24, 48, and 56 weeks after the administration of the ketogenic diet. The body weight, body mass index, the level of blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea showed a significant decrease from week 1 to week 56 (P < 0.0001), whereas the level of HDL-cholesterol increased significantly (P < 0.0001). Interestingly these changes were more significant in subjects with high blood glucose level as compared to those with normal blood glucose level. The changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant. This study shows the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects following its long-term administration. Furthermore, it demonstrates that in addition to its therapeutic value, low carbohydrate diet is safe to use for a longer period of time in obese diabetic subjects.

The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10620-006-9433-5

Journal: Digestive Diseases and Sciences

Publication Date: 02/2007

Summary: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is an increasingly common condition that may progress to hepatic cirrhosis. This pilot study evaluated the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on obesity-associated fatty liver disease. Five patients with a mean body mass index of 36.4 kg/m2 and biopsy evidence of fatty liver disease were instructed to follow the diet (<20 g/d of carbohydrate) with nutritional supplementation for 6 months. Patients returned for group meetings biweekly for 3 months, then monthly for the second 3 months. The mean weight change was −12.8 kg (range 0 to −25.9 kg). Four of 5 posttreatment liver biopsies showed histologic improvements in steatosis (P=.02) inflammatory grade (P=.02), and fibrosis (P=.07). Six months of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet led to significant weight loss and histologic improvement of fatty liver disease. Further research is into this approach is warranted.

Key Takeaways

Low carbohydrate ketogenic diets can be an effective way to reverse fatty liver related to obesity and facilitate weight loss.

Fatty Liver Is Reversible With Ketogenic Diets

Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/87/1/44/4633256

Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 01/2008

Summary: Altering the macronutrient composition of the diet influences hunger and satiety. Studies have compared high- and low-protein diets, but there are few data on carbohydrate content and ketosis on motivation to eat and ad libitum intake. We aimed to compare the hunger, appetite, and weight-loss responses to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate [(LC) ketogenic] and those to a high-protein, medium-carbohydrate [(MC) nonketogenic] diet in obese men feeding ad libitum. Seventeen obese men were studied in a residential trial; food was provided daily. Subjects were offered 2 high-protein (30% of energy) ad libitum diets, each for a 4-wk period-an LC (4% carbohydrate) ketogenic diet and an MC (35% carbohydrate) diet-randomized in a crossover design. Body weight was measured daily, and ketosis was monitored by analysis of plasma and urine samples. Hunger was assessed by using a computerized visual analogue system. Ad libitum energy intakes were lower with the LC diet than with the MC diet [P=0.02; SE of the difference (SED): 0.27] at 7.25 and 7.95 MJ/d, respectively. Over the 4-wk period, hunger was significantly lower (P=0.014; SED: 1.76) and weight loss was significantly greater (P=0.006; SED: 0.62) with the LC diet (6.34 kg) than with the MC diet (4.35 kg). The LC diet induced ketosis with mean 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of 1.52 mmol/L in plasma (P=0.036 from baseline; SED: 0.62) and 2.99 mmol/L in urine (P<0.001 from baseline; SED: 0.36). In the short term, high-protein, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets reduce hunger and lower food intake significantly more than do high-protein, medium-carbohydrate nonketogenic diets.

Key Takeaways

Two types of high protein diets were compared. One was low carb and the other was medium carbohydrate. The low carb version of the high protein diet led a greater reduction in hunger and food intake, and induced ketosis where the medium carbohydrate diet did not.

Even With High Protein, Adding Carbs Can Make You Eat More

Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low‐carbohydrate vs. low‐fat/low‐calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00518.x

Journal: Obesity Reviews

Publication Date: 12/2008

Summary: There are few studies comparing the effects of low‐carbohydrate/high‐protein diets with low‐fat/high‐carbohydrate diets for obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. This systematic review focuses on randomized controlled trials of low‐carbohydrate diets compared with low‐fat/low‐calorie diets. Studies conducted in adult populations with mean or median body mass index of ≥28 kg m−2 were included. Thirteen electronic databases were searched and randomized controlled trials from January 2000 to March 2007 were evaluated. Trials were included if they lasted at least 6 months and assessed the weight‐loss effects of low‐carbohydrate diets against low‐fat/low‐calorie diets. For each study, data were abstracted and checked by two researchers prior to electronic data entry. The computer program Review Manager 4.2.2 was used for the data analysis. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences between the groups for weight, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols and systolic blood pressure, favouring the low‐carbohydrate diet. There was a higher attrition rate in the low‐fat compared with the low‐carbohydrate groups suggesting a patient preference for a low‐carbohydrate/high‐protein approach as opposed to the Public Health preference of a low‐fat/high‐carbohydrate diet. Evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low‐carbohydrate/high‐protein diets are more effective at 6 months and are as effective, if not more, as low‐fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to 1 year. More evidence and longer‐term studies are needed to assess the long‐term cardiovascular benefits from the weight loss achieved using these diets.

Key Takeaways

A review of 13 different articles comparing low carbohydrate to low fat or low calorie diets showed low carbohydrate diets to have more positive effects on weight loss, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure. Additionally, the low carb diets were more effective at 6 months in reducing weight and heart disease risk.

Low Carb Diets Outperform Low Calorie and Low Fat Diets

A carbohydrate-restricted diet during resistance training promotes more favorable changes in body composition and markers of health in obese women with and without insulin resistance

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21673483

Journal: The Physician and Sports Medicine

Publication Date: 05/2011

Summary: To determine whether sedentary obese women with elevated levels of homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance (ie, > 3.5) experience greater benefits from an exercise + higher-carbohydrate (HC) or carbohydrate-restricted weight loss program than women with lower HOMA levels. 221 women (age, 46.5 ± 12 years; body weight, 90.3 ± 16 kg; body mass index, 33.8 ± 5 kg/m(2)) participated in a 10-week supervised exercise and weight loss program. The fitness program involved 30 minutes of circuit-style resistance training 3 days per week. Subjects were prescribed low-fat (30%) isoenergetic diets that consisted of 1200 kcals per day for 1 week (phase 1) and 1600 kcals per day for 9 weeks (phase 2) with HC or higher protein (HP). Fasting blood samples, body composition, anthropometry, resting energy expenditure, and fitness measurements were obtained at 0 and 10 weeks. Subjects were retrospectively stratified into lower (LH) or higher (HH) than 3.5 HOMA groups. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures and are presented as mean ± standard deviation changes from baseline. Baseline HOMA levels in the LH group were significantly lower than those in the HH group (LH, 0.6 ± 0.7; HH, 6.3 ± 3.4; P = 0.001). Diet and training significantly decreased body weight (-3.5 ± 3 kg), fat mass (-2.7 ± 3 kg), blood glucose (-3%), total cholesterol (-4.5%), low-density lipoproteins (-5%), triglycerides (-5.9%), systolic blood pressure (-2.6%), and waist circumference (-3.7%), while increasing peak aerobic capacity (7.3%). Subjects in the HP group experienced greater weight loss (-4.4 ± 3.6 kg vs -2.6 ± 2.9 kg), fat loss (-3.4 ± 2.7 kg vs -1.7 ± 2.0 kg), reductions in serum glucose (3% vs 2%), and decreases in serum leptin levels (-30.8% vs -10.8%) than those in the HC group. Participants in the HH (-14.1%) and HP-HH (-21.6%) groups observed the greatest reduction in serum blood glucose. A carbohydrate-restricted diet promoted more favorable changes in weight loss, fat loss, and markers of health in obese women who initiated an exercise program compared with a diet higher in carbohydrate. Additionally, obese women who initiated training and dieting with higher HOMA levels experienced greater reductions in blood glucose following an HP diet.

Key Takeaways

Sedentary obese women who implemented an exercise program showed greater changes in weight loss, fat loss, blood sugar, and leptin when consuming a high protein carbohydrate restricted diet compared to a high carbohydrate diet.

Exercising to Lose Weight? Try Removing Carbs to Speed Up Progress

Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate restriction

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076656/

Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 05/2011

Summary: Individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have excess intrahepatic triglycerides. This is due, in part, to increased hepatic synthesis of fat from carbohydrates via lipogenesis. Although weight loss is currently recommended to treat NAFLD, little attention has been given to dietary carbohydrate restriction. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of 2 wk of dietary carbohydrate and calorie restriction at reducing hepatic triglycerides in subjects with NAFLD. Eighteen NAFLD subjects (n = 5 men and 13 women) with a mean (±SD) age of 45 ± 12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 35 ± 7 consumed a carbohydrate-restricted (<20 g/d) or calorie-restricted (1200–1500 kcal/d) diet for 2 wk. Hepatic triglycerides were measured before and after intervention by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  Mean (±SD) weight loss was similar between the groups (−4.0 ± 1.5 kg in the calorie-restricted group and −4.6 ± 1.5 kg in the carbohydrate-restricted group; P = 0.363). Liver triglycerides decreased significantly with weight loss (P < 0.001) but decreased significantly more (P = 0.008) in carbohydrate-restricted subjects (−55 ± 14%) than in calorie-restricted subjects (−28 ± 23%). Dietary fat (r = 0.643, P = 0.004), carbohydrate (r = −0.606, P = 0.008), posttreatment plasma ketones (r = 0.755, P = 0.006), and respiratory quotient (r = −0.797, P < 0.001) were related to a reduction in liver triglycerides. Plasma aspartate, but not alanine, aminotransferase decreased significantly with weight loss (P < 0.001). Two weeks of dietary intervention (≈4.3% weight loss) reduced hepatic triglycerides by ≈42% in subjects with NAFLD; however, reductions were significantly greater with dietary carbohydrate restriction than with calorie restriction. This may have been due, in part, to enhanced hepatic and whole-body oxidation.

Key Takeaways

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is partly caused by excess dietary carbohydrates, which leads to fat production in the liver. 18 subjects completed 2 weeks of either carbohydrates restricted diets or calorie restricted diets. Both diets showed weight loss and reduction in liver fat, but the low carbohydrate diet showed greater reduction in liver fat.

Low Carb Diets Effective In Treating NAFLD

Want To Achieve Your Optimal Health?

Join us for a Free 30-Day Trial. Cancel Anytime.