Mortality

Peer-Reviewed Scientific Articles​

Dietary Intake of Red Meat, Processed Meat, and Poultry and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and All-Cause Mortality in the Context of Dietary Guideline Compliance

URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/1/32

Journal: Nutrients

Publication Date: 12/2020

Summary: Meat intake has been linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and mortality. However, diet composition may affect the risks. We aimed to estimate associations between red and processed meat and poultry intake and risk of CRC and all-cause mortality and if they are modified by dietary quality using Cox regression analyses. Baseline dietary data were obtained from three survey rounds of the Danish National Survey on Diet and Physical Activity. Data on CRC and all-cause mortality were extracted from national registers. The cohort was followed from date of survey interview—or for CRC, from age 50 years, whichever came last, until 31 December 2017. Meat intake was analysed categorically and continuously, and stratified by dietary quality for 15–75-year-old Danes at baseline, n 6282 for CRC and n 9848 for mortality analyses. We found no significant association between red and processed meat intake and CRC risk. For poultry, increased CRC risk for high versus low intake (HR 1.62; 95%CI 1.13–2.31) was found, but not when examining risk change per 100 g increased intake. We showed no association between meat intake and all-cause mortality. The association between meat intake and CRC or mortality risk was not modified by dietary quality.

Key Takeaways

There is no association between meat intake and all cause mortality. There is no association between red and processed meat consumption and colon cancer.

Red Meat Does NOT Increase Risk of Colon Cancer

Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3778858/

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 10/2013

Summary: Ecological data indicate an increase in meat intake in Asian countries; however, our pooled analysis did not provide evidence of a higher risk of mortality for total meat intake and provided evidence of an inverse association with red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood. Red meat intake was inversely associated with CVD mortality in men and with cancer mortality in women in Asian countries.

Key Takeaways

Increased red meat consumption was not associated with increased mortality in Asian countries. Additionally increased red meat led to less risk of mortality from heart disease and cancer.

Red Meat Consumption Associated with Lower Mortality

Processed meat intake and chronic disease morbidity and mortality: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6797176/

Journal: PLoS One

Publication Date: 10/2019

Summary: Despite the nutritional value of meat, a large volume of reviews and meta-analyses suggests that processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases. However, assessments of the quality of these published reviews internal validity are generally lacking. We systematically reviewed and assessed the quality alongside summarizing the results of previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examined the association between processed meat intake and cancers, type II diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Reviews and meta-analyses published until May 2018 were identified through a systematic literature search in the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE, and reference lists of included reviews. The quality of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses was assessed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). All eligible reviews had to comply with two quality requirements: providing sufficient information on quality assessment of the primary studies and a comprehensive search. The results were summarized for T2D, CVD, and each of the different cancer types. The certainty in the estimates of the individual outcomes was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) method. In total, 22 systematic reviews were eligible and thus included in this review. More than 100 reviews were excluded because quality assessment of the primary studies had not been performed. The AMSTAR score of the included reviews ranged from 5 to 8 indicating moderate quality. Overall, the quality assessments of primary studies of the reviews are generally lacking; the scientific quality of the systematic reviews reporting positive associations between processed meat intake and risk of various cancers, T2D and CVD is moderate, and the results from case-control studies suggest more often a positive association than the results from cohort studies. The overall certainty in the evidence was very low across all individual outcomes, due to serious risk of bias and imprecision.

Key Takeaways

Previous studies that have been done to show that processed meat is linked with various types of cancers, diabetes, and heart disease gives very low quality evidence. Additionally these studies have various flaws including a large amount of bias and low precision due to conflicting results.

Why Did We Draw Conclusions From Poorly Done Studies?

Association between hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of cancer death in non-obese and obese people: A population‐based observational study

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ijc.30729

Journal: Cancer Epidemiology

Publication Date: 08/2017

Summary: Review of NHANES database. Among all study participants, cancer mortality was significantly higher in those with hyperinsulinemia than in those without hyperinsulinemia. Similarly, among non-obese participants, multivariable analysis showed that cancer mortality was significantly higher in those with hyperinsulinemia than in those without.

Key Takeaways

High levels of insulin in the blood increases risk for cancer mortality.

Ask Your Doctor To Test Your Insulin Level

The association of lean and fat mass with all-cause mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939475316301016

Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

 Publication Date: 11/2016

 Summary: Greater lean tissue mass is associated with improved cardiovascular and overall mortality in the elderly. The lowest levels of fat tissue mass are linked with adverse prognosis, but the highest levels show no significant mortality protection. Prevention efforts in the elderly frail may be best targeted toward improvements in lean muscle mass.

Key Takeaways

Increased lean tissue mass in elderly reduces cardiovascular and overall death rate in the elderly. Fat tissue offers no protection from death and extremely low levels of fat tissue have negative consequences.

Increase Lean Mass to Age Healthfully

Lipid paradox in acute myocardial infarction-the association with 30-day in-hospital mortality

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738856

Journal: Critical Care Medicine

Publication Date: 06/2015

Summary: Low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low triglycerides, and high Killip severity were associated with significantly higher 30-day in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction.

Key Takeaways

Patients who come to the hospital due to a heart attack with low LDL, low triglycerides, and evidence of heart failure had higher chance of dying within 30 days.

Heart Attack Patients With Low LDL At Greater Risk Of Dying. Do We Really Know Enough About Cholesterol To Make Health Claims?

Muscle Mass Index as a Predictor of Longevity in Older-Adults

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4035379/

Journal: American Journal of Medicine

Publication Date: 06/2014

Summary: This study demonstrates the survival predication ability of relative muscle mass and highlights the need to look beyond total body mass in assessing the health of older adults.

Key Takeaways

Total mortality was reduced in individuals with a higher muscle mass index compared to those with a lower muscle mass index

Increased Muscle Mass Decreases Mortality

Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults

URL: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/1819573

Journal: JAMA Internal Medicine

Publication Date: 04/2014

Summary: Results from NHANES database. Most US adults consume more added sugar than is recommended for a healthy diet. We observed a significant relationship between added sugar consumption and increased risk for CVD mortality.

Key Takeaways

Increased intake of sugar is associated with an increased risk of heart disease.

Is Sugar The True Cause Of Heart Disease?

Is the use of cholesterol in mortality risk algorithms in clinical guidelines valid? Ten years prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT 2 study

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951982

Journal: Journal of Evaluation Clinical Practice

Publication Date: 02/2012

Summary: Our study provides an updated epidemiological indication of possible errors in the CVD risk algorithms of many clinical guidelines. If our findings are generalizable, clinical and public health recommendations regarding the ‘dangers’ of cholesterol should be revised. This is especially true for women, for whom moderately elevated cholesterol (by current standards) may prove to be not only harmless but even beneficial.

Key Takeaways

Cholesterol should no longer be considered dangerous to our health. Additionally, this study suggest moderate elevations in cholesterol may be beneficial to women.

Cholesterol Guidelines Should Be Revised

The inverse relationship between serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and all-cause mortality in a 9.6-year follow-up study in the Japanese general population

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15913635

Journal: Atherosclerosis

Publication Date: 01/2006

Summary: As in the many Western populations, serum HDL-C levels were inversely associated with all-cause mortality in the Japanese general population.

Key Takeaways

A higher HDL level is associated with a lower all cause mortality.

A Good Reason To Want To Raise Your HDL

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