Men’s health

Peer-Reviewed Scientific Articles​

Effects of an omnivorous diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian diet on resistance-training-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle in older men

URLhttps://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/70/6/1032/4729141

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 12/1999

Summary: Very limited data suggest that meat consumption by older people may promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training (RT). The objective of this study was to assess whether the consumption of an omnivorous (meat-containing) diet would influence RT-induced changes in whole-body composition and skeletal muscle size in older men compared with a lactoovovegetarian (LOV) (meat-free) diet. Nineteen men aged 51–69 y participated in the study. During a 12-wk period of RT, 9 men consumed their habitual omnivorous diets, which provided ≈50% of total dietary protein from meat sources (beef, poultry, pork, and fish) (mixed-diet group). Another 10 men were counseled to self-select an LOV diet (LOV-diet group). Maximal strength of the upper- and lower-body muscle groups that were exercised during RT increased by 10–38% (P < 0.001), independent of diet. The RT-induced changes in whole-body composition and skeletal muscle size differed significantly between the mixed- and LOV-diet groups (time-by-group interactions, P < 0.05). With RT, whole-body density, fat-free mass, and whole-body muscle mass increased in the mixed diet group but decreased in the LOV- diet group. Type II muscle fiber area of the vastus lateralis muscle increased with RT for all men combined (P < 0.01), and the increase tended to be greater in the mixed-diet group (16.2 ± 4.4 %) than in the LOV diet group (7.3 ± 5.1%). Type I fiber area was unchanged with RT in both diet groups. Consumption of a meat-containing diet contributed to greater gains in fat-free mass and skeletal muscle mass with RT in older men than did an LOV diet.

Key Takeaways

Resistance training increased strength in both meat containing and lactoovovegetarian diets of men aged 51-69, but the exclusion of meat from the diet resulted in a decrease in lean mass compared to the increase in lean muscle mass of the meat containing diet. Fast-twitch (type II) muscle fiber area also increased in both groups, however meat in the diet led to a greater increase.

Excluding Meat from the Diet Diminishes Returns of Strength Training

Eating meat makes you sexy: Conformity to dietary gender norms and attractiveness.

URL: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-26154-001

Journal: Psychology of Men & Masculinity

Publication Date: 07/2018

Summary: Past research has highlighted links between meat consumption and masculine gender role norms such that meat consumers are generally attributed more masculine traits than their vegetable-consuming counterparts. However, the direct link between gender roles and men’s food choices has been somewhat neglected in the literature. Three studies conducted in Italy investigated this link between meat and masculinity. Studies 1 and 2 analyzed female mating preference for vegetarian and omnivorous partners, confirming that women preferred omnivorous men (Study 1 and 2), rated them as more attractive (Study 1 and 2), and felt more positive about them (Study 1) than vegetarians. Moreover Study 2 showed that the attribution of masculinity mediated this relationship, such that vegetarian men were considered less attractive because they were perceived as less masculine. Study 3 tested the relationship between the endorsement of food-related gender norms and food choices in a sample of Italian men. The results showed that men who perceived vegetarianism as feminine preferred meat-based dishes for themselves and expected their female partners to choose vegetarian dishes. Together, these findings show that gender role norms prescribing that men eat meat are actively maintained by both women and men and do in fact guide men’s food choices.

Key Takeaways

Females rated men who ate meat as more attractive than those who didn't eat meat. These women considered the vegetarian men as less masculine, and therefore less attractive. Men also perceived vegetarian eating as feminine. This study implies that increased meat eating is associated with masculine gender roles.

Women Don't Want To Date Vegetarians!

The Association Between Protein Intake by Source and Osteoporotic Fracture in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27943394/

Journal: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

Publication Date: 12/2016

Summary: Men with high protein intake (particularly high animal protein intake) as a percentage of TEI have a lower risk of major osteoporotic fracture

Key Takeaways

High animal protein in the diet keeps bone density strong and prevents the risk of fractures with age in men

Why Elderly Should Increase Meat Consumption

A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males

URL: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2016/9104792/

Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

 Publication Date: 09/2016

Summary: In male subjects with several years of experience with resistance training, chronic consumption of a diet high in protein had no harmful effects on any measures of health. Furthermore, there was no change in body weight, fat mass, or lean body mass despite eating more total calories and protein.

Key Takeaways

High protein diets were not found to be harmful in men who do resistance training

Worried About Eating Too Much Protein? Don't Be

Food intake diet and sperm characteristics in a blue zone: a Loma Linda Study

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27280539/

Journal: European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology

Publication Date: 08/2016

Summary: Observational study of males in Loma Linda. The study showed that the vegetables-based food intake decreased sperm quality

Key Takeaways

Loma Linda is a "Blue Zone" and a significant portion of the population consumes a plant based diet. Men in Loma Linda have decreased sperm quality.

Do Plant Based Diets Lead to Low Sperm Counts?

Role of hyperinsulinemia in increased risk of prostate cancer: a case control study from Kathmandu Valley.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24568446/

Journal: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

Publication Date: 02/2014

Summary: Elevated fasting levels of serum insulin appear to be associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer.

Key Takeaways

A chronically elevated insulin level may lead to the development of prostate cancer in men.

High Fasting Insulin May Be Associated with Prosate Cancer

Mechanisms of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prostate Cancer Prevention

URL: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/824563.pdf

Journal: BioMed Research International

Publication Date: 05/2013

Summary: A review of the effects of omega 3 on prostate cancer. Omega 3 may have preventative effects against prostate cancer.

Key Takeaways

Omega-3's are a type of fat that is found most abundantly in animal foods, especially fish. This type of fat may show some protection against prostate cancer when increased in the diet.

Can Eating More of This Type of Fat Protect You From Prostate Cancer?

Maternal and gestational risk factors for hypospadias

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18709149/

Journal: Environmental Health Perspectives

Publication Date: 08/2008

Summary: A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring

Key Takeaways

Hypospadias in a congenital malformation in a child's penis that may occur due to the lack of meat and fish in the mother's diet during pregnancy.

This Can Happen To Your Child's Penis If You Don't Eat Meat While Pregnant

A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10619956/

Journal: BJUI International

Publication Date: 08/2008

Summary: As vegetarians have a greater exposure to phytoestrogens than do omnivores, these results support the possibility that phytoestrogens have a deleterious effect on the developing male reproductive system.

Key Takeaways

Mothers who consume vegetarian diets high in phytoestrogens may be associated with poor development of their baby boy's penis. This abnormal development can lead to hypospadias.

Plant Based Diets Can Do What To Your Penis?

Diet and risk of colorectal cancer in a cohort of Finnish men

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1008962219408

Journal: Cancer causes and Control

Publication Date: 08/1999

Summary: Observational study of Finnish men found intake of milk protein and the consumption of milk products was inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer. However, intake of dietary fiber was not associated with risk, nor was fat intake. Consumption of meat or different types of meat, and fried meat, fruits or vegetables were not associated with risk.

Key Takeaways

Meat, fiber, and fat intake had no association with colon cancer, but milk product consumption led to lower rates of colon cancer.

Is Dairy Good For Your Colon?

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